HHigh redshift broadening of supernovae light curves, taken at face value, is the only direct evidence for expansion and is often used to discount Tired Light Theories. However, the authors of these papers look at high redshifts since these results are said to give ?conclusive evidence for expansion.? But what of the smaller redshifts?, what do they show? This paper reviews supernovae aging data and shows that if we ignore Malmquist biases and that fact that brighter supernova Ia do have intrinsically broader light curves, then the main stream supernovae evidence is that whilst there may be expansion at high redshifts, there is no time dilation and therefore no expansion at low redshifts. That is, if we are to believe the main stream version of supernovae light curves then we must believe that the Universe is presently static.
These results are then compared to average Hydrogen cloud separation in the Lyman alpha forest in quasar spectra. These also show that at high redshifts the average spacing between Hydrogen clouds reduces as the redshift increases ? showing evidence that the clouds are moving further apart with time and therefore expansion. However, at low redshifts the average spacing is constant - again showing a static Universe in the region. Is it just coincidence that both sets of data show expansion at high redshifts and a static Universe at low redshifts?
Together, both sets of data are consistent with a Universe that did expand in the past but stopped expanding some time ago. The density of the Universe would then be equal to the critical density and we would have reached the point where the expansion has been arrested. There is then no need for inflation, ?dark energy' or ?dark matter.' However, in this static epoch of the Universe the Hydrogen clouds and supernovae at low redshifts have differing redshifts dependent on distance. It is proposed that in this scenario, redshifts are due to the New Tired Light theory alone.
The New Tired Light Theory (NTL) is tested by using known data of the distance to the Corona Borealis galaxy cluster (A2065 in particular) and from this predicting the redshift of the galaxy. The predicted value is then compared to the measured value. In NTL, photons of light are continually absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space which recoil both on absorption and re-emission. Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron and thus the photon energy is reduced, the frequency is reduced and the wavelength is increased. It is redshifted. Using the wavelength of the K line' of ionised calcium, standard physics and published collision cross-sections, the predicted redshift by NTL is found to be z=0.067. This compares favourably with the measured redshift value ofz=0.0714 - they agree to within 6%. In NTL the energy transferred to the recoiling electron is emitted as secondary photons. The predicted wavelength of these secondary photons is calculated and is shown to be in the microwave region of the electro-magnetic spectrum. This again is consistent with the NTL prediction that these secondary photons form the CMB.
The solar flare of July 23rd, 2002 was the first gamma-ray flare to be observed in high resolution by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The observations showed unexpectedly high redshifts in the gamma-rays detected, but with no ?apparent pattern'. The shifts appear to be intrinsic as they occur along a direct line of sight and not perpendicular to the solar surface as expected by Doppler effects. This paper looks at the wavelengths of the observed photons and, in particular, the shift in each wavelength suffered by the six nuclear de-excitation lines of 12C, 56Fe, 24Mg, 20Ne, 16O, 26Si. What is found is that the data falls into two distinct sets. Each set has the shift in wavelength delta lambda directly proportional to the wavelength lambda as predicted by ?New Tired Light (NTL)'. It is proposed that Si and Fe are at different levels in the solar atmosphere than the others and so photons from these interactions travel shorter distances through the solar plasma and thus undergo smaller redshifts. There also appears to be a quantisation in the shifts of the lines with five of the six lines showing shifts in wavelengths in multiples of 2.0x10-16 m. These results are an anomaly in the mainstream ?expansion' theories of redshift but are consistent with the NTL theory. Here, collision cross-sections (and hence shifts in wavelength) are proportional to the wavelength of the photon and redshifts are caused by discrete shifts in wavelength when photons interact with electrons in the plasma through which they travel. That is, as the photons escape the solar plasma they undergo one, two, three, four (and so on) interactions where they experience a shift in wavelength of 2.0x10-16 m each time. Importantly, line widths also provide direct evidence for NTL which predicts that the line widths should experience a statistical broadening that increases as Sqrt(N) - where N is the number of interactions suffered by the photons. For large shifts in wavelength the data shows a linear relation between FWHM (Full line Width at Half Maximum) and Sqrt(N) as predicted by NTL where mainstream theories predict no variation. These results are compared to the measurements of the solar flare of October 2003 and are in good agreement.
Recent developments in laser induced plasma have shown that the characteristic recombination lines from atoms within the plasma itself are redshifted. Importantly, the experimental results show that the redshift of these lines increases with the free electron density of the plasma. Long predicted by exponents of alternative theories to the Big Bang, these intrinsic redshifts produced by plasma in the laboratory give credence to such theories. This paper gives an overview of the laboratory results of Chen et al and relates them to the predictions previously made by the New Tired Light Theory. The plasma induced redshift, line broadening are all as predicted by New Tired Light. A further laboratory test is suggested whereby New Tired Light predicts the wavelength of the secondary radiation ( = 0.1mm) emitted by the plasma - should New Tired Light be responsible for the redshifts. If this relatively easy and inexpensive test is carried out then it could settle the matter once and for all. Regardless of this, now that it has been shown in the laboratory that plasma induce intrinsic redshifts, will this be incorporated into the Big Bang theory? The Universe is a big place filled with plasma and these laboratory results show that this plasma induces redshifts. Experience tells me that mainstream science will ignore good science.
A review of the literature on the Lyman alpha forest gives direct evidence on the dynamics of the un-iverse. In an expanding universe one would expect the average temperature of the universe to fall as it expands - but a review of the Doppler parameters of the Hydrogen clouds in Quasar spectra shows that contrary to this, they are increasing in temperature (or at least, becoming increasingly disturbed) as the universe ages. Additionally, the evidence is that Hydrogen clouds are, on average, evenly spaced up to a redshift of one - if not beyond. These results beg the question, how is it that the Hydrogen clouds can have differing redshifts whilst, on average, remain equally spaced? Especially since this range of redshifts includes the supernovae data used to show ?acceleration' and so called ?time dilation.' Taking these results in isolation implies that the universe has been static for at least the last billion years or so and therefore a new model of redshift is needed to explain redshifts in a static universe.
The model proposed here is that in a static universe, photons of light from distant galaxies are absorbed and reemitted by electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space and on each interaction the electron recoils. Energy is lost to the recoiling electron (New Tired Light theory) and thus the reemitted photon has less energy, a reduced frequency and therefore an increased wavelength. It has been redshifted. The Hubble relationship becomes ?photons of light from a galaxy twice as far away, make twice as many interactions with the electrons in the plasma of IG space, lose twice as much energy and undergo twice the redshift. A relationship between redshift and distance is found and, using published values of collision cross-sections and number density of electrons in IG space, a value for the Hubble constant is derived which is in good agreement with measured values. Assuming that the energy transferred to the recoiling electron is emitted as secondary radiation; the wavelength is calculated and found to be consistent with the wavelengths of the CMB. A test of this theory in the laboratory is proposed whereby a high powered laser could be fired through sparse cold plasma and the theories predicted increase in emission of microwave radiation of a particular frequency determined.
Despite the idea of an expanding universe having been around for nearly one hundred years there is still no conclusive, direct evidence for expansion. This paper examines the Lyman Alpha forest in order to determine the average temperature and the average separation of Hydrogen clouds over the aging of the universe. A review of the literature shows that the clouds did once become further and further apart (showing expansion?) but are now evenly spaced (an indication of a static universe?). Doppler parameters give an indication of the temperature and/or the degree of disturbance of the clouds and the evidence is that the temperature or degree of disturbance is increasing rather than decreasing as required by an expanding universe. Whilst these results do not support any cosmology individually, they do support one where the universe expanded in the past but that expansion has now been arrested and the universe is now static. A separate mechanism for redshift would be required to explain why, in this scenario, the Hydrogen Clouds are evenly spaced in the local universe - but have differing redshifts.
High z hydrogen cloud separation can be used to give an independent estimate on the lower limit of the age of the universe in an expanding model and it is found that the age must be far greater than the presently accepted value of 13.8 billion years - if the H1 clouds are to achieve their present separations without some mechanism other than inflation being involved.
The Hubble diagram for type Ia Supernovae gives the value of the Hubble constant, H as 64?3 km/s Mpc-1, which, in SI units, is equal to ?hre/me per cubic metre of space' (2.1x10-18 s-1). This coincidence could suggest a relationship between H and the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space that act collectively and oscillate if displaced. The possibility that light from distant galaxies is absorbed and reemitted by the electrons is considered with the electron recoiling on both occasions. A double M?ssbauer effect leads to a redshift in the transmitted light. Introduction of the photoabsorption cross section 2reλ leads to the relationship H = 2nehre/me giving H ≈ 12 km/s Mpc-1 when ne has the reported value of ne ≈ 0.1m-3. The small amount of energy transferred to the electron by recoil is radiated as bremsstrahlung with a wavelength in the microwave region.